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Partial occupancies, different methods
In this section we
discuss partial occupancies. A must for all readers.
First there is the question why to use partial occupancies at
all. The answer is: partial occupancies help to decrease the number
of kpoints necessary to calculate an accurate bandstructure energy.
This answer might be strange at first sight.
What we want to calculate is, the integral over the filled parts of
the bands
where is the Dirac step function. Due to our finite
computer resources this integral has to be evaluated using
a discrete set of kpoints[37]:

(7.7) 
Keeping the step function we get a sum
which converges exceedingly slow with the number of kpoints included.
This slow convergence speed arises only from the fact that
the occupancies jump form 1 to 0 at the Fermilevel.
If a band is completely filled the integral can be calculated
accurately using a low number of kpoints (this is the
case for semiconductors and insulators).
For metals the trick is now to replace the step function
by a (smooth) function
resulting in a much faster convergence speed
without destroying the accuracy of the sum.
Several methods have been proposed to solve this dazzling problem.
Subsections
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